Strict Standards: Declaration of JCacheControllerView::get() should be compatible with JCacheController::get($id, $group = NULL) in /homepages/17/d473017229/htdocs/ND/libraries/joomla/cache/controller/view.php on line 137
Menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea is defined as pain with menstruation, usually cramping centred in the lower abdomen.
50% of menstruating women are affected by dysmenorrhea, and approximately 10% of these women experience severe dysmenorrhea with incapacitation for 1-3 days per month. It most commonly affects women from 20-24 years of age.
There is no associated organic cause for primary dysmenorrhea.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by:
- Adenomyosis: the presence of endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus) within the myometrium (the thick, muscular layer of the uterus)
- Leiomyomas (uterine fibroids)
- Chronic salpingitis: infection and inflammation of the fallopian tube(s)
- IUD use
- Cervical stenosis
The signs and symptoms associated with menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea are:
- Sharp, cramping, midline-lower abdominal pain with possible radiation to the lower back and upper thighs
- Cramping usually lasts < 24 hours and seldom lasts > 2-3 days
The following accompanying symptoms may also be associated with menstrual cramps:
- Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
- Abdominal bloating
- Pain during sexual intercourse
The diagnostic assessment tools and tests used to diagnose dysmenorrhea or menstrual cramps are:
- Gynecological examination with bimanual pelvic abdominal examination
- Pelvic ultrasound
From a Naturopathic standpoint, Dr. Moira Kwok ND will obtain a very thorough medical history in order to put all of your "puzzle pieces" together to form a whole picture of everything that is going on from a health perspective. From this holistic approach to treatment, she will put together an individualized treatment plan based on a combination of dietary and lifestyle recommendations, supplements, botanicals, acupuncture andor IV therapy that is based on your specific case.
- Ferri FF. 2007. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA.