Osteoarthritis (OA)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is defined as a joint condition in which degeneration and loss of articular cartilage occurs, leading to pain and deformity.


OA occurs in 2-6% of the population equally in men and women, and usually occurs in people older than 50 years of age. 


The cause of primary osteoarthritis is unknown.

The cause of secondary osteoarthritis is trauma, metabolic conditions or other forms of arthritis.


The signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis may include:

  • Pain, stiffness and crepitus
  • Decreased range of motion and/or pain with range of motion
  • Joint tenderness and/or joint swelling
  • Crepitus with motion
  • Heberden's nodes
  • Bouchard's nodes


Unfortunately, there are no diagnostic tests available for degenerative joint disease.  

If there is an inflammatory component, then the vigrx plus paypal following diagnostic tests are used: CBC (complete blood count), ANA (antinuclear antibody), ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) or rheumatoid factor.

If there is pain in the knee, x-ray imaging is used.


From a Naturopathic standpoint, Dr. Moira Kwok ND will obtain a very thorough medical history in order to put all of your "puzzle pieces" together to form a whole picture of everything that is going on from a health perspective.  From this holistic approach to treatment, she will put together an individualized treatment plan based on a combination of dietary and lifestyle recommendations, supplements, botanicals, acupuncture and/or IV therapy that is based on your specific case.



  • Ferri FF.  2007.  Ferri’s Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment.  Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA.