Osteoporosis is defined as the progressive decrease in bone mass that results in increased bone fragility, and thus a higher fracture risk.


The types of osteoporosis are:

  • Primary Osteoporosis include:
    • Idiopathic osteoporosis has an unknown pathogenesis and may occur in children and young adults
    • Type I osteoporosis may occur in post-menopausal women (51 to 75 years of age) and is characterized by an accelerated and disproportionate trabecular bone loss that is associated with vertebral bone (spinal) and distal forearm fractures
    • Type II or involutional osteoporosis occurs in both men and women who are older than 70 years of age and is characterized by trabecular and cortical bone loss that is associated with fractures of the arm (humerus), leg (tibia), hip (femoral neck) and pelvis
  • Secondary osteoporosis occurs in 20% of women and 40% of men with osteoporosis where the osteoporosis is a feature of another disease process, heritable disorder of the connective tissue or medication side effect


Osteoporosis affects approximately 25 million American men and women, and  is much more common in women than men (2:1). 


The causes of primary osteoporosis are often multi-factorial from a combination of factors including genetics, nutrition, peak bone mass, physical activity, age of menopause and estrogen status.

The causes of secondary osteoporosis include:

  • Endocrine diseases such as acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, hyperthyroidism and hypogonadism
  • Gastrointestinal diseases such as malabsorption, malnutrition (including anorexia nervosa), priliminary biliary cirrhosis and gastrectomy


The risk factors for osteoporosis include:

  • Age: each decade after 40 years of age is associated with a does semenax work 5-fold increased risk
  • Genetics:
    • Ethnicity: more common in Caucasians or Asians versus African Americans, and more common in African Americans versus Polynesians
    • Gender: more common in women versus men
    • Family history
  • Environmental factors: such as poor nutrition, calcium deficiency, physical inactivity, medication 9eg. heparin, steroids), alcohol abuse, tobacco use or traumatic injury
  • Chronic disease states: such as androgen deficiency, hypercortisolism, estrogen deficiency, hyperthyroidism, gastrectomy or cirrhosis


The signs and symptoms associated with osteoporosis may include:

  • Signs and symptoms are usually not present, however there is a tendency towards an eventual development of a dorsal kyphosis (dowager's hump), decreased height and skeletal pain that is usually associated with a fracture
  • Other physical findings are related to the other conditions that are associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis


Be aware that the following complications may arise:

  • Bone fractures


The diagnostic assessment tolls used to diagnose osteoporosis include:

  • Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip, spine and wrist 


From a Naturopathic standpoint, Dr. Moira Kwok ND will obtain a very thorough medical history in order to put all of your "puzzle pieces" together to form a whole picture of everything that is going on from a health perspective.  From this holistic approach to treatment, she will put together an individualized treatment plan based on a combination of dietary and lifestyle recommendations, supplements, botanicals, acupuncture and/or IV therapy that is based on your specific case.



  • Ferri FF.  2007.  Ferri’s Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment.  Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA.