PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome)

PMS (premenstrual syndrome) is defined as the behavioural disturbances that are of sufficient severity to affect interpersonal relationship s adversely or interfere with normal activities that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.


It is extremely prevalent and affects approximately ⅓ of all pre-menopausal women.  Severe cases occur in approximately 2-10% of women with PMS.


A single cause of PMS is unlikely because of its multi-factorial and multi-organ nature.


The signs and symptoms associated with PMS (premenstrual syndrome) may include:

  • Diverse and potentially disabling symptoms
  • Associated with more than 150 psychological, physical and behavioural symptoms
  • The most common physical complaints are:
    • Aches & pains
    • Fatigue
    • Weight gain
    • Headache or migraines
    • Palpitations
    • Bloating
    • Cramps
    • Breast tenderness
  • The most common emotional complaints are:
    • Anger
    • Anxiety
    • Crying easily
    • Depression
    • Irritability
    • Labile moods
    • Nervous tension
    • Sadness
    • Overly sensitive
  • The most common behavioural complaints are:
    • Food cravings
  • Other vigrx premium behavioural complaints include:
    • Increased alcohol intake
    • Decreased concentration
    • Decreased efficiency
    • Forgetfulness
    • Decreased motivation
    • Avoidance of activities
    • Staying home
    • Increased appetite
    • Changes in libido


Unfortunately, there are no diagnostic assessment tools or tests that are available to specifically confirm the diagnosis od PMS.  Instead, laboratory studies are used to rule out other alternative conditions.


From a Naturopathic standpoint, Dr. Moira Kwok ND will obtain a very thorough medical history in order to put all of your "puzzle pieces" together to form a whole picture of everything that is going on from a health perspective.  From this holistic approach to treatment, she will put together an individualized treatment plan based on a combination of dietary and lifestyle recommendations, supplements, botanicals, acupuncture and/or IV therapy that is based on your specific case.



  • Ferri FF.  2007.  Ferri’s Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment.  Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA.