Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as a positive urine culture.


The types of UTIs include:

  • First infection: the first documented UTI that tends to be uncomplicated and easily treated
  • Unresolved bacteriuria: the UTI in which the urinary tract is not sterilized during therapy
  • Bacterial persistence: the UTI in which urine cultures become sterile during therapy but a persistent source of infection from a site within the urinary tract that was excluded from the high urinary concentrations give rise to reinfection by the same organism
  • Reinfection: the UTI in which a new infection occurs with new pathogens at variable intervals with a previous infection that has been eradicated
  • Relapse: occurs within 2 weeks of treatment when the same organism reappears in the same site as the previous infection


The incidence of urinary tract infections is dependent on the age group:

  • In infants, UTIs are more common in boys
  • In pre-school children, UTis are more common in girls
  • In adults, UTis are more common in women, with a prevalence of 1-3% in non-pregnant women


The causes of a UTI include:

  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Pseudomonas enterococci
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Use of a catheter

The risk factors that increase the risk of a UTI include:

  • Age
  • Diabetes
  • Neurological diseases
  • Anatomical abnormalities
    • Bladder outlet obstruction
    • Urethral stricture
    • Vesicoureteral reflux
    • Fistula
    • urinary diversion
    • Megacystis
    • Infected stones
  • Renal failure
  • Pregnancy 
  • Infrequent voider
  • Poor patient compliance
  • Poor hygiene
  • Instrumentation
  • Diaphragm contraceptives
  • Tampon use
  • Douches
  • Catheters


The signs and symptoms most commonly associated with an urinary tract infection include:

  • Inconsistent presentation and symptoms cannot be relied n to accurately diagnose or localize the site of an UTI
  • Suprapubic pain or discomfort
  • Urinary frequency
  • Urinary urgency
  • Painful urination
  • Urge incontinence
  • Blood in urine


The diagnostic tests used to diagnose an UTI include:

  • Urinalysis with microscopic evaluation
  • Urine culture and sensitivity
  • CBC (complete blood count) with differential


From a Naturopathic standpoint, Dr. Moira Kwok ND will obtain a very thorough medical history in order to put all of your "puzzle pieces" together to form a whole picture of everything that is going on from a health perspective.  From this holistic approach to treatment, she will put together an individualized treatment plan based on a combination of dietary and lifestyle recommendations, supplements, botanicals, acupuncture and/or IV therapy that is based on your specific case.



  • Ferri FF.  2007.  Ferri’s Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment.  Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA.